Malnutrition among elderly a multifactorial condition to flourish evidence from a cross-sectional neuro physiotherapy manchester study – clinical epidemiology and global health

Nutritional status assessment is a comprehensive evaluation to understand changes neuro physiotherapy manchester in human physiology. Poor nutritional status and malnutrition in the elderly population are neuro physiotherapy manchester important areas of concern. Malnutrition contributes to a progressive decline in health, an increased risk of falling, anemia, immune dysregulation, impaired cognitive status, reduced muscle function, increased utilization of health care services, premature institutionalization, and increased morbidity and mortality. 1 x 1 villafane, J.H., pirali, C., dughi, S. Et al. Association between malnutrition and barthel index in a cohort of neuro physiotherapy manchester hospitalized older adults article information. J phys ther sci. 2016;

Google scholar see all references malnutrition is also associated with neuro physiotherapy manchester poor rehabilitative outcomes as well as worse functional performance. 2 x 2 schrader, E., baumgärtel, C., gueldenzoph, H. Et al. Nutritional status according to mini nutritional assessment is related to neuro physiotherapy manchester functional status in geriatric patients-independent of health status. J nutr health aging. 2014;

Google scholar see all references the risk factors of malnutrition neuro physiotherapy manchester are extremely varied and they can be divided into three neuro physiotherapy manchester main types: medical factors like poor appetite, weight loss, mobility dysfunction, diseases, drug interactions, lifestyle social factors like lack of knowledge about food, cooking or nutrition, isolation, poverty and inability to shop or prepare food and psychological neuro physiotherapy manchester factors like confusion, dementia, depression, bereavement or anxiety. 4 x 4 hickson, M. Malnutrition and ageing. Postgrad med. 2006 jan;

Google scholar see all references the most common risk factors neuro physiotherapy manchester associated with malnutrition are poor appetite, weight loss, mobility, abnormal body mass index, psychological stress or acute diseases and neuropsychological problems. Poor appetite is probably the major cause of malnutrition and neuro physiotherapy manchester is mediated by a variety of factors like loss of neuro physiotherapy manchester taste and smell, dysphagia, and poor dentition. Stroke patients with swallowing problems had a worse nutritional status neuro physiotherapy manchester compared with those with no swallowing problem. 5 x 5 gariballa, S.E., parker, S.G., taub, N. Et al. Nutritional status of hospitalized acute stroke patients. Br J nutr. 1998;

Google scholar see all references many researchers have investigated the neuro physiotherapy manchester relationship between cognition and nutrition. They have reported that the feeding and alimentation skills regress neuro physiotherapy manchester gradually because of cognitive and physical deterioration; uncontrolled weight loss is almost inevitable in later stages, despite quality of care. 6 x 6 claggett, M.S. Nutritional factors relevant to alzheimer’s disease. J am diet assoc. 1989;

Google scholar see all references altered food intake is a neuro physiotherapy manchester symptom of depression and several studies have provided evidence to neuro physiotherapy manchester suggest that this is a comparatively common cause of weight neuro physiotherapy manchester loss and malnutrition in the elderly. 8 x 8 blaum, C.S., fries, B.E., and fiatarone, M.A. Factors associated with low body mass index and weight loss neuro physiotherapy manchester in nursing home residents. J gerontol A biol sci med sci. 1995;

Nutritional assessment is an in-depth evaluation of both objective and subjective data related to neuro physiotherapy manchester an individual’s food and nutrient intake, lifestyle and medical history. There are several tests used to assess malnutrition in the neuro physiotherapy manchester elderly like MNA-SF tool, elderly nutritional risk index (GNRI) and barthel index assessment to evaluate functional status. The mini nutritional assessment-short form (MNA-SF) tool is a validated and commonly used tool. It has high sensitivity and specificity and is effective for neuro physiotherapy manchester evaluating the nutritional status of elderly persons living in different neuro physiotherapy manchester settings. 11 x 11 guigoz, Y. The mini nutritional assessment (MNA) review of the literature-what does it tell us?. J nutr health aging. 2006;

Google scholar see all references the MNA-SF tool, a single and rapid nutrition assessment tool, was developed to evaluate nutrition status as part of the neuro physiotherapy manchester standard evaluation of elderly patients in clinics, nursing homes, hospitals, or among those who are otherwise frail. It was designed to meet the specifications such as reliability, clearly defined thresholds, compatibility with the skills of a generalist assessor, the minimal opportunity for bias introduced by the data collector, acceptability by patients, and low cost. 13 x 13 guigoz, Y., vellas, B., and garry, P.J. Mini nutritional assessment: a practical assessment tool for grading the nutritional state of neuro physiotherapy manchester elderly patients. Facts res gerontol. 1994;

The aim of the nutritional assessment is to identify individuals neuro physiotherapy manchester or population groups at risk of becoming malnourished and to neuro physiotherapy manchester identify individuals or population groups who are malnourished. This study has evaluated the nutritional status, different risk factors associated with malnutrition and the influence of neuro physiotherapy manchester different determinants on the nutritional status among elderly inpatients at neuro physiotherapy manchester a tertiary care public teaching hospital.

This study was carried out in full compliance with the neuro physiotherapy manchester ethical standards provided by indian council of medical research to neuro physiotherapy manchester carry out such study. The experimental protocol had the approval from the respective “research committee” and “ethics committee” of the concerned hospital and mentor institute. The verbal and written explanation of the study was performed; and, the written informed document from patients or patient’s legal guardians or caretakers prior to enrolling subjects in neuro physiotherapy manchester the study was obtained.

The patients with age 60 year or above, either sex, with one or more concurrent diseases, receiving one or multiple drugs and willing to participate were neuro physiotherapy manchester included. The patients with incomplete documentation and completely immobilized patients and/or unable to answer the questions were excluded from the neuro physiotherapy manchester study. All the relevant information was collected from the patient record neuro physiotherapy manchester file and a patient interview was conducted for each patient neuro physiotherapy manchester in the study. Patient record file information included demographic characteristics (age, gender, body weight, and height), co-morbidities, diagnosis, and drugs prescribed. All this information was collected in a standard case record neuro physiotherapy manchester form. The patients were not subjected to any harm during this neuro physiotherapy manchester study and there was no direct benefit to them. Patient’s rights were respected and the personal health information provided neuro physiotherapy manchester by the patient was confidential and in no circumstances, it was disclosed to anyone.

The MNA-SF tool consists of six parameters i.E. Food intake (0, 1, or 2 points), weight loss (0, 1, 2, or 3 points), mobility (0, 1, or 2 points), psychological stress (0 or 2 points), neuropsychological problems (0, 1, or 2 points), and body mass index (0, 1, 2, or 3 points). Based upon the inputs on these parameters, a well-determined score was obtained for all patients. On the basis of these scores, the patients were categorized “malnourished” (0-7points), “at a risk of malnutrition” (8–11 points) and “normal nutritional status” (12–14 points). The frequencies of malnutrition risk factors were calculated based on neuro physiotherapy manchester their individual scores for each parameter using the MNA-SF tool. The individual items/parameters i.E. Mobility, and neuropsychological status were evaluated by the help of predetermined neuro physiotherapy manchester scores of their sub-parameters.

Permission to use the mini nutritional assessment tool for evaluating neuro physiotherapy manchester nutritional status among elderly patients was obtained from the developer. This is a prevalidated tool. 13 x 13 guigoz, Y., vellas, B., and garry, P.J. Mini nutritional assessment: a practical assessment tool for grading the nutritional state of neuro physiotherapy manchester elderly patients. Facts res gerontol. 1994;

Google scholar see all references have reported that 51.67% of patients were malnourished and saeidlou et al. In a nursing home in iran 20 x 20 saeidlou, S.N., merdol, T.K., mikaili, P., and bektas, Y. Assessment of the nutritional status and affecting factors of elderly neuro physiotherapy manchester people living at six nursing home in urmia, iran. Int J acad res. 2011;

Google scholar see all references the rate of prevalence was neuro physiotherapy manchester found to be 55% which is quite higher than this study, it may be either due to regional differences, or lifestyle. The prevalence of another study reported in pakistan was found neuro physiotherapy manchester to be (42.10%) smaller than this study, it may be due to higher sample size (380). 22 x 22 ghani, A., hussain, S., and zubair, M. Assessment of nutritional status of geriatric population in sargodha city. Int J med appl health. 2013;

To study the relationship of different determinants with nutritional status neuro physiotherapy manchester by performing multinomial logistic regression analysis, a significant relationship was observed between age, food habits, alcoholic status, residence, occupation, education and nutritional status in this study. No significant association was found between marital status and nutritional neuro physiotherapy manchester status, which was in consonance with results of boulos et al. In lebanon 23 x 23 boulos, C., salameh, P., and barberger-gateau, P. The AMEL study, a cross sectional population-based survey on aging and malnutrition in 1200 elderly lebanese neuro physiotherapy manchester living in rural settings: protocol and sample characteristics. BMC public health. 2013;

Loss of nutritional reserves due to alcohol ingestion is partly neuro physiotherapy manchester due to inadequate protein intake and is compounded by the neuro physiotherapy manchester effects that ethanol has on gastrointestinal function, which includes increased mucosal permeability which may lead to ‘leakage’ of nutrients from the blood to the gut lumen, increased gut motility with increased transit times, and impaired salt and water absorption. Alcohol also inhibits the absorption of vitamins and nutrients by neuro physiotherapy manchester active transport processes, an effect that may be crucial in precipitating specific nutrient neuro physiotherapy manchester deficiencies e.G. Thiamine. The end result may be severe functional impairment and tissue neuro physiotherapy manchester damage in other organs, notably the liver and the brain, as a consequence of specific vitamin and nutrient deficiencies 25 neuro physiotherapy manchester x 25 world, M.J., ryle, P.R., and thomson, A.D. Alcoholic malnutrition and the small intestine. Alcohol alcohol. 1985;

Google scholar see all references are the major contributing risk neuro physiotherapy manchester factors of malnourishment. This study also reports that patients requiring walking aids contribute neuro physiotherapy manchester malnutrition mostly followed by patients receiving more than 6 medications, patients receiving high fall risk drugs (hfrds), patients with urinary incontinence, patients having 3 or more comorbidities, and patients experienced fall within 6 months before admission, while evaluating the somatic risk factors of malnutrition.

This study has various strengths which include; it involves the most vulnerable age group “greater or equal to 60 years” which is very challenging to address and evaluate. It also provides a detailed insight regarding risk factors especially neuro physiotherapy manchester somatic risk factors of malnutrition and prevalence in general. There is a paucity of data available in this domain neuro physiotherapy manchester and these findings could run as a forerunner in the neuro physiotherapy manchester development of appropriate guidelines for nutritional screening and interventional programs neuro physiotherapy manchester among the geriatric population. The small sample size could be one of the major neuro physiotherapy manchester limitations of this study.

This study was aimed to evaluate the nutritional status, different risk factors associated with malnutrition and the influence of neuro physiotherapy manchester different determinants on the nutritional status among elderly patients at neuro physiotherapy manchester a tertiary care public teaching hospital by using MNA- SF tool. Analysis, using MNA-SF tool, showed that 118 patients were at “risk of malnutrition” and 109 patients were found to be “malnourished”. The “at risk of malnutrition” group was the largest contributor (50.2%). Mobility functions followed by a decline in food intake, weight loss, psychological stress/acute disease, neuropsychological problems and body mass index were identified risk factors neuro physiotherapy manchester in this study. Among somatic risk factors of malnutrition, patients required walking aids contribute malnutrition mostly followed by patients neuro physiotherapy manchester receiving more than 6 medications, patients receiving high fall risk drugs, patients with urinary incontinence, patients having 3 or more comorbidities, and patients experienced fall within 6 months before admission.

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