Companion animal ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic parasite council lyme disease

• A clinical diagnosis of lyme borreliosis usually depends on the ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic presence of compatible clinical signs and positive serology for B. Burgdorferi. Although dogs with protein-losing nephropathy may develop azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and proteinuria, hematology and serum chemistry do not reveal specific evidence of ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic infection in most dogs with lyme disease. Thromobocytopenia or leukopenia in a dog from an area where ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic B. Burgdorferi is endemic is more likely attributable to infection or ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic coinfection with a rickettsial pathogen rather than an indication of ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic lyme borreliosis.

• serology is the mainstay of confirming a clinical impression of ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic lyme disease. Because of the prolonged incubation period, diseased dogs are almost always seropositive. However, because asymptomatic dogs in endemic areas are also often or ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic even usually seropositive, accurate interpretation of a positive serologic test result is complicated.

• it is important to remember that whole cell vaccines can ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic invoke antibodies that are detectable by whole-cell-based indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. Therefore previous vaccination or prior exposure to related organisms may ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic result in false-positive test results when using whole-cell-based IFA or ELISA, necessitating a follow-up western blot assay for any dogs testing positive on ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic the initial whole-cell-based screening technique. For this reason, many veterinarians consider the specific C6-based assay the initial screening method of choice for evaluating ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic a dog for exposure to and potentially infection with B. Burgdorferi.

• spirochetes cannot be detected in blood smears by microscopy. Indeed, B. Burgdorferi is only transiently present in circulating blood, and whole blood is not considered a useful diagnostic specimen ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic for evaluation of infection. Spirochetes reportedly may be found in synovial fluid using dark-field microscopy, but low numbers of organisms are present in clinical specimens, precluding direct visualization.

• molecular diagnosis of B. Burgdorferi infection in pets via PCR of affected tissues is ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic available. However, the sensitivity of these assays may be limited by the ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic low density of spirochetes in clinical specimens, and results (both positive and negative) should be interpreted with caution because the techniques used in ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic different diagnostic laboratories vary. To maximize the utility of molecular diagnostics, samples should be collected before the initiation of antimicrobial therapy ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic and submitted to experienced diagnostic laboratories with stringent quality control ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic measures in place.

• attached ticks found on pets should be promptly removed to ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic prevent transmission of B. Burgdorferi or any other pathogens they may harbor. To avoid both zoonotic infection and accidental inoculation of pathogens ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic into the pet during the removal process, ticks should be retracted using forceps or a commercial tick-removal device, and care should be taken to avoid contact with tick ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic contents, ideally by wearing gloves. Careful attention to handwashing following tick removal is also recommended.

• tick infestations and resultant infection with B. Burgdorferi can be prevented by avoiding tick-infested areas whenever possible and by modifying the habitat around ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic the home through such basic measures as keeping shrubbery and ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic grass closely clipped to discourage both tick populations and the ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic wildlife species that often harbor them from flourishing. Immature ticks on rodents may be controlled through the use ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic of acaricide-treated cotton that the rodents then use to line their ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic nest, or by bait stations constructed to allow self-application of acaricides to rodents. Broadcasting acaricides across large outdoor areas is difficult, expensive, and largely ineffective in controlling many tick species.

• vaccines are available to limit lyme borreliosis in dogs, and experimental studies testing efficacies of some of these vaccines ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic were reported in peer-reviewed journals. The decision to vaccinate against lyme borreliosis should be based ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic on a risk assessment of the individual dog that includes ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic information about where the dog lives and how often it ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic frequents a tick-infested area. Routine vaccination of dogs against lyme disease is not warranted ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic in areas of the united states where B. Burgdorferi infection is not endemic.

• vaccination against lyme borreliosis does not replace the need for ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic stringent tick-control programs in pets. Vaccines may not protect against all strains of B. Burgdorferi, and ticks harbor multiple pathogens for which vaccines are not ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic yet available. For this reason, CAPC recommends that all pets be maintained year-round on highly effective acaricides with residual activity against ticks.

Lyme borreliosis caused by B. Burgdorferi is the most common vector-borne disease of people in the united states. Symptoms of human lyme disease include erythema migrans (an ‘bull’s-eye-shaped’ rash expanding from the site of the tick bite), fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and headache. Persistent lyme disease in people may be manifested by recurrent ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic arthritis, neurologic disease, and myocarditis.

Epidemiologists at the CDC reported a positive correlation between canine ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic seroprevalence levels reported on the CAPC website to the incidence ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic of human lyme disease reported to the CDC. In this study, these investigators also reported that 5% canine seroprevalence at the county level was associated with emergence ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic of human lyme disease, while 1% canine seroprevalence was associated with little to no risk for ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic emergence of human lyme disease at the county level. Importantly, these results corroborated the feasibility of canine sentinels for risk ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic of human exposure to B. Burgdorferi. This study was not designed to test for a canine ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic source of human infection. A subsequent report from the same group underscored the importance ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic of maximal participation of veterinarians and veterinary clinics in these ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic surveys to ensure sufficient amounts of data and to follow-up with travel histories of seropositive canine patients, in order to mitigate artifact associated with seroconverted dogs that ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic have traveled to endemic areas.

Prevention of human infection with B. Burgdorferi relies on preventing tick bites in people through many ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic of the same measures that prevent tick bites on animals. In addition to stringent adherence to the routine use of ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic acaricides on pets to limit infestations, people should take basic precautions when in tick-infested areas. Such precautions include wearing light-colored, protective clothing; performing frequent tick checks and promptly removing any ticks found; and using repellent products specifically labeled as effective at preventing ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic tick attachment.

• A clinical diagnosis of lyme borreliosis usually depends on the ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic presence of compatible clinical signs and positive serology for B. Burgdorferi. Although dogs with protein-losing nephropathy may develop azotemia, hypoalbuminemia, and proteinuria, hematology and serum chemistry do not reveal specific evidence of ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic infection in most dogs with lyme disease. Thromobocytopenia or leukopenia in a dog from an area where ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic B. Burgdorferi is endemic is more likely attributable to infection or ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic coinfection with a rickettsial pathogen rather than an indication of ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic lyme borreliosis.

• serology is the mainstay of confirming a clinical impression of ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic lyme disease. Because of the prolonged incubation period, diseased dogs are almost always seropositive. However, because asymptomatic dogs in endemic areas are also often or ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic even usually seropositive, accurate interpretation of a positive serologic test result is complicated.

• it is important to remember that whole cell vaccines can ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic invoke antibodies that are detectable by whole-cell-based indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. Therefore previous vaccination or prior exposure to related organisms may ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic result in false-positive test results when using whole-cell-based IFA or ELISA, necessitating a follow-up western blot assay for any dogs testing positive on ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic the initial whole-cell-based screening technique. For this reason, many veterinarians consider the specific C6-based assay the initial screening method of choice for evaluating ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic a dog for exposure to and potentially infection with B. Burgdorferi.

• spirochetes cannot be detected in blood smears by microscopy. Indeed, B. Burgdorferi is only transiently present in circulating blood, and whole blood is not considered a useful diagnostic specimen ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic for evaluation of infection. Spirochetes reportedly may be found in synovial fluid using dark-field microscopy, but low numbers of organisms are present in clinical specimens, precluding direct visualization.

• molecular diagnosis of B. Burgdorferi infection in pets via PCR of affected tissues is ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic available. However, the sensitivity of these assays may be limited by the ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic low density of spirochetes in clinical specimens, and results (both positive and negative) should be interpreted with caution because the techniques used in ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic different diagnostic laboratories vary. To maximize the utility of molecular diagnostics, samples should be collected before the initiation of antimicrobial therapy ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic and submitted to experienced diagnostic laboratories with stringent quality control ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic measures in place.

• attached ticks found on pets should be promptly removed to ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic prevent transmission of B. Burgdorferi or any other pathogens they may harbor. To avoid both zoonotic infection and accidental inoculation of pathogens ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic into the pet during the removal process, ticks should be retracted using forceps or a commercial tick-removal device, and care should be taken to avoid contact with tick ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic contents, ideally by wearing gloves. Careful attention to handwashing following tick removal is also recommended.

• tick infestations and resultant infection with B. Burgdorferi can be prevented by avoiding tick-infested areas whenever possible and by modifying the habitat around ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic the home through such basic measures as keeping shrubbery and ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic grass closely clipped to discourage both tick populations and the ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic wildlife species that often harbor them from flourishing. Immature ticks on rodents may be controlled through the use ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic of acaricide-treated cotton that the rodents then use to line their ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic nest, or by bait stations constructed to allow self-application of acaricides to rodents. Broadcasting acaricides across large outdoor areas is difficult, expensive, and largely ineffective in controlling many tick species.

• vaccines are available to limit lyme borreliosis in dogs, and experimental studies testing efficacies of some of these vaccines ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic were reported in peer-reviewed journals. The decision to vaccinate against lyme borreliosis should be based ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic on a risk assessment of the individual dog that includes ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic information about where the dog lives and how often it ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic frequents a tick-infested area. Routine vaccination of dogs against lyme disease is not warranted ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic in areas of the united states where B. Burgdorferi infection is not endemic.

• vaccination against lyme borreliosis does not replace the need for ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic stringent tick-control programs in pets. Vaccines may not protect against all strains of B. Burgdorferi, and ticks harbor multiple pathogens for which vaccines are not ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic yet available. For this reason, CAPC recommends that all pets be maintained year-round on highly effective acaricides with residual activity against ticks.

Lyme borreliosis caused by B. Burgdorferi is the most common vector-borne disease of people in the united states. Symptoms of human lyme disease include erythema migrans (an ‘bull’s-eye-shaped’ rash expanding from the site of the tick bite), fever, myalgia, arthralgia, and headache. Persistent lyme disease in people may be manifested by recurrent ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic arthritis, neurologic disease, and myocarditis.

Epidemiologists at the CDC reported a positive correlation between canine ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic seroprevalence levels reported on the CAPC website to the incidence ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic of human lyme disease reported to the CDC. In this study, these investigators also reported that 5% canine seroprevalence at the county level was associated with emergence ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic of human lyme disease, while 1% canine seroprevalence was associated with little to no risk for ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic emergence of human lyme disease at the county level. Importantly, these results corroborated the feasibility of canine sentinels for risk ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic of human exposure to B. Burgdorferi. This study was not designed to test for a canine ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic source of human infection. A subsequent report from the same group underscored the importance ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic of maximal participation of veterinarians and veterinary clinics in these ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic surveys to ensure sufficient amounts of data and to follow-up with travel histories of seropositive canine patients, in order to mitigate artifact associated with seroconverted dogs that ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic have traveled to endemic areas.

Prevention of human infection with B. Burgdorferi relies on preventing tick bites in people through many ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic of the same measures that prevent tick bites on animals. In addition to stringent adherence to the routine use of ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic acaricides on pets to limit infestations, people should take basic precautions when in tick-infested areas. Such precautions include wearing light-colored, protective clothing; performing frequent tick checks and promptly removing any ticks found; and using repellent products specifically labeled as effective at preventing ortho neuro physiotherapy clinic tick attachment.

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